Samir Morad1 and Shaun Lindsay2, 1Department Engineering, University of East London, London, E16 2RD, UK and 2Sandwell & West Birmingham NHS Trust, Hallam St, West Bromwich B71 4HJ, UK
Previous research has emphasized the significance of mask and interface design in non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and the prevention of pressure ulcers (PUs). Multiple variables are involved in the necrosis process, but the skin-mask interface has the significant impact. This study determines the potential for clinical improvements by modifying the designs of pre-existing ventilation masks. Using 3D scanning and printer technology, a custom-fit ventilation mask (CFM) has been produced. Integration with a pre-existing mask has been achieved by fabricating a modular design that acts as a disposable, custom-fit cushion. Embedded sensors are added to the mask to measure the skin-mask microclimate. Real-time data is plotted and monitored for critical conditions and to identify other key features. A preliminary temperature-humidity (T-H) monitoring of the skin-mask interface shows fluctuation trends that could potentially induce PUs. However, there is a less sensitive reaction in the original mask test.
Embedded sensors, Microclimate monitor, Pressure ulcers, Ventilation mask.
Ass. prof. Július Rajcáni, MD, PhD, ScD, Retired senior scientist , Bratislava, Slovakia
This paper brings a brief survey of the achievements in virology as published fromthe second half of 20th century til now. Inbeginning,virusresearch was performed atthe framework of microbiology and/or closely related biological disciplines, such as parasitology, pathology, mycology and/or cytology. Virologists were active in several relatedareas of research, because viruses infectnot only mammalian species, but alsolower vertabrates(such asbirds and reptiles) as well as certain plants. There was difficultto assessall theabovementioned overwhelmingscientific knowledge, but it seems that someauthorsdid so with good success. The origin of viruses has not been cleared yet,nevertheless it might be assumed that theydeveloped from cellular organelles and from a certain point they underwentan own (already independent)evolution.
virus evolution, cellular organelles, host infection, biologic sciences.
Ar. Leena Aphale1, and Dr. R.M. Damgir2 and Dr. Uma Jadhav3, 1Department of Architecture, MIT, Aurangabad, 2Dept. of Civil Engg., Govt. Engg. College, Aurangabad, 3School of Architecture, CHRIST University, Bangalore.
An Urban infrastructure- building life span is assumed to be up to 50-60 years in ideal condition. Nowadays, with the increasing rate of urbanization, many buildings have fully deteriorated within only a 25 to 30 years span and do not meet their life expectancy. They need to be treated. Also, it’s difficult to find a single building without complete architectural designing, optimum utilization of spaces, leakage, cracks, settlement and deterioration in concrete, material quality etc. The keen quality control and work appreciation done by the agencies will definitely improve the health and reduce the construction time and expenditure of Urban habitat. But only good construction does not keep the building healthy. The Important Criteria like Climatic factors, Architecture design and planning, Materials, Manual errors, Health monitoring, Geological conditions, and calamities which cast the impact over the building health, should be taken into consideration. This paper is a sincere effort to find the influencing factors for the health of building in urban life. If we adopt or design a few guidelines, that will make the building in urban habitat healthy and sustainable, resistant and strapping with the above factors, which may reduce cost, time and increase the life expectancy of the building health.
Urbanization, Architecture, Climatic factors, building health, sustainability, urban habitat.
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